Using the DML Worksheets to Guide Debriefing

Using the DML Worksheets to Guide Debriefing

This session provides an introduction to the Debriefing for Meaningful Learning method. It includes a discussion of how feedback and reflection are part of debriefing as well as an overview of the impact of Socratic questioning on the development of clinical reasoning. The process DML follows is introduced and participants will have an opportunity to practice DML-type questions to understand the relationship between thinking and actions.


Kristina Dreifuerst

Kristina Thomas Dreifuerst, PhD, RN, CNE, ANEF, FAAN, is a tenured Associate Professor at Marquette University College of Nursing in Milwaukee, Wis. Her research is at the forefront of disciplinary efforts to develop, use, and test innovative teaching methods to improve students’ clinical reasoning skills and also investigate how educators can best be prepared to use evidence-based methods to enhance clinical teaching. Her work has been recognized for leading initiatives to transform nursing education, and she has influenced pedagogical changes in educational practices locally, nationally, and internationally.

Dr. Dreifuerst is best known for the clinical teaching method she developed: Debriefing for Meaningful Learning (DML), which was used in the seminal National Simulation Study conducted by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing. The impact of her funded program of research is far-reaching. DML has been adopted by more than 500 schools of nursing throughout the world for use in simulation, traditional clinical settings, and across the curriculum in nursing and other healthcare disciplines. She is frequently consulted by schools of nursing for her expertise in curriculum and instruction. She has authored numerous journal articles and book chapters on debriefing and best practices in teaching and learning. Dr. Dreifuerst is the recipient of national and international awards recognizing her contribution to the field, and she holds editorial board positions on three esteemed journals, and she is an Associate Editor for the journal “Clinical Simulation in Nursing.” She is also the Immediate Past President of the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning. Dr. Dreifuerst is a certified nurse educator and was inducted as a Fellow into the Academy of Nursing Education in 2015 and inducted as a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing in 2018.